South Asia

In recent years, large heroin consignments, of the order of hundreds of kilograms, shipped from ports on the coast of Iran and Pakistan on the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf (the Makran Coast), have attracted international attention, and some of this heroin is destined for Europe. This Southern route to Europe entails several modes of transport and transhipment points that may be combined in different ways. The heroin exported by boat from the Makran Coast seems to be of relatively high purity, according to data released by the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF), a US-led multinational naval task force that carries out random searches on vessels sailing between the Makran Coast, the Arabian Peninsula and the coast of East Africa (CMF, 2015). The heroin shipped on the Southern route first reaches countries of the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa.